What is Chargeback and How to Avoid it?
Online payment using a bank card is convenient for cardholders. However, there are cases when services or goods are not provided (or provided not in full). In such cases, a customer has a chance to get money back. A chargeback procedure is provided for this.
What is the Chargeback?
According to the chargeback meaning, it is a procedure of transaction cancellation. If a consumer pays for goods or services with the card, it is possible to request the chargeback. In other words, this is a refund of the payment to the holder’s card. Payment dispute takes place out of court. All stages go through an issuing bank.
What are the Reasons for the Chargeback?
It is possible to dispute a transaction only in certain cases, namely:
- a technical failure occurred during the payment process, which leads to double debiting;
- an ATM did not give out money;
- the sum of the transaction differs from the actual one;
- fraudulent money debiting;
- when buying goods online, the quality does not meet requirements, but the merchant does not intend to refund;
- payment for a service/product was made, but a company did not provide it;
- charging money from a non-existent/inactive account.
Sides Participating in the Chargeback
Five key parties participate in the chargeback application processing procedure, namely:
- A deceived owner of a bank account/card acts as the initiator.
- The issuing bank stands as the actual owner of the card from which funds were debited.
- An acquiring bank that acts as a representative of the merchant.
- The merchant is an individual or legal entity to whose account the payment was transferred from the account of the initiator.
- The payment system (Mastercard, Visa, etc.) through which funds were transferred from account to account stands as an outside observer. It can be directly included in the procedure when the arbitrators decide the issue.
Stages of the Procedure
The rules of the IPS strictly regulate the procedure for interaction between all participants in cases of chargebacks. The cardholder cannot directly ask the payment system to make the chargeback. The decision on the refund will be made by banks. The procedure of chargeback is the following:
- The cardholder informs the issuing bank that he/she intends to dispute the transaction.
- The issuing bank checks the data provided by the client: whether payments were made, whether negotiations were carried out with the merchant, whether there is evidence that the terms of the contract have not been fulfilled.
- The issuing bank sends the request to the acquiring bank.
- The acquiring bank accepts the request, analyzes the received evidence, compares them with the rules of the IPS, decides whether there is enough data or clarifications are needed. If there is enough data, the acquiring bank independently charges money back from the merchant’s account. Or, conversely, it rejects the chargeback request on its own.
- If the data is not enough, the acquiring bank asks for an explanation from the merchant.
- In some cases, the merchant accepts the chargeback and informs the acquiring bank about it. For example, if there is little time for consideration, and the amount is relatively small. Then the acquiring bank refunds money to the issuing bank, and the latter returns money to the cardholder.
- If the merchant does not agree, it sends a Representment to the acquiring bank, with arguments in its favor.
- The acquiring bank sends the merchant’s response to the issuing bank;
- The issuing bank may accept the merchant’s evidence and inform its client (cardholder) that the appeal has been rejected;
- Either the issuing bank can side with its client, reject the merchant’s arguments, and require the acquiring bank to initiate the chargeback and refund;
- If the acquiring bank then agrees with the issuing bank, it will debit money from the merchant’s account, transfer it to the issuing bank, and the latter, in turn, will credit it to the customer’s card account;
- The acquiring bank may or may not agree. Then the issuing bank has the right to apply to the arbitration commission of the payment system. It conducts its own investigation and makes final chargeback decisions.
Within what Time can the Chargeback Request Submitted?
According to the rules of IPS, it is stipulated that the maximum period for filing an application is 540 days from the date of the transaction. Keep in mind that documents are transferred to the IPS through the issuer, so the request should be made in advance.
The period for transferring data for the issuing bank to the IPS is from 30 to 45 days from the date of receipt of the chargeback application.
How Can the Customer Get Money Back?
The process of the merchant chargeback is a trouble-some and long-lasting procedure that implies going through the following steps:
- The chargeback procedure is launched by submitting a customer’s application to the issuing bank. The claim is described in free form. The amount and the time of the transaction are indicated; other supporting documents are presented.
- If considered positive, the application is passed on to the merchant’s bank.
- After examining the claim, the acquiring bank performs a reverse payment or transfers the claim to the second party to the conflict (the merchant).
- If within a certain period, the merchant does not provide evidence of the correctness of the transaction, the amount of the claim is debited from its account. If the request is ignored, the IPS appoints arbitration, where it independently decides the outcome of the dispute. The maximum chargeback time limit from the date of payment will be approximately 285 days.
Cases of Chargeback Refusal
There are cases when the chargeback application can be denied. This may happen in the following cases:
- an error in the paperwork, and revision is needed;
- insufficient evidence base;
- incorrect payment details;
- deadlines for accepting claims are not met.
What is the Difference between the Chargeback through a Bank and a Payment System?
There are two ways to return funds for the consumer:
- resolve dispute directly with the merchant. If the merchant agrees with a refund, then the company refunds to the client’s card by contacting the bank.
- issue the chargeback. If the parties could not agree, then the client writes the application to the name of the bank and the dispute procedure begins, where the payment system acts as an arbiter between the customer and the merchant.
Why are Merchants Afraid of Chargebacks?
When the customer asks the bank to cancel the transaction, the merchant receives the chargeback. For merchants, this procedure is inevitably connected with incurring losses and receiving a negative rating. In addition, the client remains dissatisfied and can leave negative feedback on an online store.
Besides, the chargeback procedure is unwilling for online stores since it bears all the refund costs. Merchant are usually fined for chargebacks. Each bank sets its own tariffs for fines.
For example, Mastercard and Visa have strict policies toward the chargeback. These payment systems limit the number of chargebacks per month for online stores. If the merchant exceeds the limit, then it falls under the system of stricter verification by the bank or payment system. Usually, the result of such a verification and control system is an increase in chargeback fee. If merchants accumulate a lot of chargebacks, their stores can be closed, and it loses the ability to accept bank cards for payment.
Visa starts monitoring Internet merchants when both of the following conditions for 3 consecutive months are met:
- have 200 or more chargebacks;
- the amount of chargebacks is 2 or more percent of the sales amount.
Mastercard sets the following conditions to initiate monitoring for 2 consecutive months:
- have 50 or more chargebacks;
- the amount of chargebacks is 1 or more percent of the sales amount.
If, after falling under surveillance, the merchant does not take measures to reduce the number of chargebacks, the company will be disconnected from processing, and all the money on the merchant account can be frozen for up to 7-8, and sometimes, 12 months.
Most acquirers do not look at the number of chargebacks; they compare the percentage of the number of chargebacks to the number of sales for 1 calendar month. At the same time, it is highly likely that the acquirer will ask the merchant for an explanation even if the amount of chargebacks has exceeded 1.5% for Visa and 0.5% for Mastercard.
And upon reaching 2% for Visa and 1% for Mastercard, the Internet merchant will generally lose the ability to accept corresponding cards for payment.
How to Minimize the Number of Chargebacks?
Thus, it is logical that online stores and companies should try to minimize the number of chargebacks. Here are some tips on how to do it:
- Online stores usually have a section on the Terms and Conditions, where all the cases for refund are specified. Take a responsible approach to develop this document since it will regulate your further cooperation with customers.
Usually, clients understand that the chargeback procedure and the actual refund take a lot of time, therefore, usually, they always try to resolve the issue with the merchant themselves.
- Place a detailed description of the services and goods provided on your website, attach photographs, indicate the dimensions and other necessary characteristics of the goods.
- Organize a technical customer support service that will answer customer questions timely.
- Keep all information about transactions and consumers, including e-mails, receipts of goods or services.
- Return conditions must be published on the website. Also, in the correspondence with the consumer, make sure that he/she is familiar with the conditions for the return of goods.
- Improve an anti-fraud system, introduce modern technologies.
- Provide documents confirming the fact that the client has received a product or service in accordance with the previously declared description.
- When dealing with courier services, take receipt upon delivery.
How to Write a Chargeback Letter?
The chargeback application is simple enough. In fact, it is only necessary to describe the circumstances of the payment and indicate the facts confirming that the merchant did not fulfill its obligations.
Note that the application can be submitted not only in the office but also via the Internet. Banks accept applications online in the feedback section on their website.
When applying for the chargeback, it is very important to indicate the reason why you are requesting a refund. What could be the reasons:
- The product or service does not match the description. For example, we bought a TV and received a radio;
- Unauthorized transaction. That is, someone made a payment from our card without our consent;
- The service or product is not provided in full. For example, we ordered two sets of wheels, but received only one;
- Double deduction of the cost from the account. It happens that the payment is made twice. As a rule, this is a consequence of a technical error, and the money can be easily charged back;
- The consumer has not received the product or service. This is the most common reason for chargebacks.
As evidence, you can use any supporting documents, as well as photos and video recordings.
The chargeback is the procedure that merchants try to avoid due to a number of factors. This directly influences their reputations and status in the market segment. Merchants are fined for a great number of chargebacks. Thus, both parties try to act responsively and solve all problems at the initial stages.